Many famous people who lived in Taganrog in the 20th century are widely known throughout the country and worldwide. Such as the writers Konstantin Paustovsky and Ivan Vasilenko who lived and worked here; the family of famous circus artists the Durovs and the renowned drama actress Faina Ranevskaya, who began their career in Taganrog; Georgy Beriev, the preeminent aircraft designer and Hanon Izakson, designer of the first Russian self-propelled combine harvesters worked here; the space pilot Yuri Malyshev, who was twice named The Soviet Union Hero, studied in Taganrog. Andrey Grechko, the Soviet Union Marshal began his military service in Taganrog.
The soviet administration was established in Taganrog on January 22, 1918. Anton Glushko headed the first local soviet. From March to May 1918, the Ukrainian Soviet government stayed in Taganrog during Ukraine’s occupation by German troops. Taganrog itself was under German occupation May - August 1918. In August 1918, Don Cossacks took the control of the city. Red Army troops under command of Nikolay V. Kuybishev entered the city on December 24, 1919. On February 26, 1920 the Military Revolutionary Commission issued the order number 46, closing five foreign consulates that were open in Taganrog at that time (Spanish, Greek, Belgian, Danish and Swedish Consulates). The full power was given to the executive committee of The City Soviet of Deputies on December 17, 1920.
In World War II, 1941-1943, Taganrog was occupied by Germans and suffered extensive damage. Two SS divisions entered the city in October 1941 with other military and back divisions to follow. The local government system was replaced by Bürgermeisteramt or "New Russian local government". Taganrog was liberated on August 30, 1943.
The post-revolution and postwar periods gave a new life to the city. The power machinery engineering, metallurgical production, instrument-making and other industry branches began to develop. The development of science was closely connected with the inauguration of the State University of Radio Engineering. In the seventies and eighties, Taganrog was known as an important scientific and industrial center of Southern Russia. Taganrog companies produced: steam-boilers, self-propelled combine harvesters, drill-, casing-, oil-, gas-, and water-pipes, gears for searching fish and other installations. Taganrog products were exported to over 50 countries of the world.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the first economic reforms in the early nineties were very unfavorable for the citizens of Taganrog. But the local government of the city and the managers of industrial enterprises didn’t fold their hands and tried to find the right ways in the new market economy. They managed to preserve the experienced workforce and improve the technological processes. By the end of the twentieth century the production output growth rate reached nearly 400 %.
The multipurpose amphibian BE-200 has been designed and put into production by Beriev Aircraft Company. This amphibian aircraft has no analogues in the whole world. The TAGMET Iron & Steel Factory applies the most progressive steel casting technology and grafts on its growth rate. Doninvest Finance & Industry Group launched the production of passenger cars under licence of CITROEN, France and HYUNDAI, South Korea. The citizens of Taganrog witnessed the inauguration of a new maternity center; a new ophthalmology department for veterans was opened in the Hospital 7. Several new trolley bus and shuttle bus routes have been introduced throughout the city. There are no obstacles with installation of digital phone lines in the city. Videophone communication and high-speed internet access are now widely available.